If the pilgrim fails to do one of the duties he has to slaughter an animal. If he cannot afford to slaughter an animal, he has to fast. The duties of Ihram are:
To make intention of Ihram from the Miqat (Prescribed place from where Ihram starts). Ibn ‘Abbas said: The Messenger of Allah had designated Dhul-al-Hulaifah for the people of Madinah, Al-Juhfah for the people of Syria, Qarn Al-Manazil for the People of Najd and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen as starting points of Ihram. He further said: These places are for the inhabitants of these region and for those who pass by intending to perform Hajj and ‘Umrah. The starting point to perform Hajj and Umrah for the inhabitants of Makkah is Makkah itself by entering into the state of Ihram and reciting Talbiyah.
Abstaining from wearing sewn clothes, keeping the head uncovered and not wearing shoes.
Repetition of Talbiyah. The Talbiyah is as follows: Labbayk, Allahumma Labbayik — Labbayk La Shareek Laka Labbayk– Innal-hamda Wanimata laka wal-mulk — La shareeka lak. Here I come to you O Allah. Here I am to worship you. Here I am to respond to you. There is no partner with you. Here I come to you; verily Praise, Bounty, and Dominion belong to you. There is no partner with you. The Talbiyah is to be uttered when the pilgrim commences Ihram at the Miqat. It is recommended to utter Talbiyah while embarking, disembarking, at the time of Adhan or at the end of Salah.
Sunan (Recommendations) of Ihram
These are the deeds which if a pilgrim fails to perform, no Fidya (ransom or expiation) will be enjoined on him but he will miss great rewards.
Bathing for Ihram. Bathing is also recommended for women in menses and in post-delivery state. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered one of Abu Bakr’s wives, who intended to perform Hajj to wash herself after she had delivered.
Clipping nails, trimming the moustache, plucking the armpit hair and shaving the pubic hair for the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) had done so.
To wear white rida’ and izar (Upper and Lower Ihram garb) because this was the practice of the Messenger (peace be upon him).
To start Ihram after praying an obligatory or supererogatory Salah.
To repeat and renew Talbiyah at the time of embarking, disembarking or Salah.
To supplicate and pray for the Prophet (peace be upon him) after Talbiyah, because the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to, after reciting Talbiyah, ask Allah for Jannah (Paradise) and used to seek refuge of Allah from the Hellfire.
Prohibitions of Ihram
These are the acts prohibited while one is in the state of Ihram. If one commits any one of them, he has to offer Fidya. They are:
Covering the head.
Shaving or shortening any hair of the body.
Clipping the nails whether of the hands or the feet.
Wearing sewn clothes.
Killing game (animals hunted as food) of the land. Allah the Most High said: You who believe! Kill not game while in Ihram. [Noble Quran 5:95]
Kissing and touching with sexual desire. Allah the Most High said:
Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj. [Noble Quran 2:197]
To marry or propose for marriage. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: A man in the state of Ihram shall not be married or allowed to propose.
Sexual intercourse, because Allah the Most High said: Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj. [Noble Quran 2:197]
Concerning the first five prohibitions he who commits anyone of them, has to offer a Fidya and it means to fast for three days or to feed six indigents by giving each one of them a handful (about 1.25 kg) of wheat or to slaughter a goat.
Allah the Most High says:
And if anyone of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp, (necessitating shaving), (he should) in compensation, either fast or feed (the poor), or offer sacrifice.
[Noble Quran 2:196]
As for the killing of land game, it has to be compensated in equivalent. Allah says:
If anyone of you kills intentionally, the compensation is an offering brought to the Ka’bah, of an animal equivalent to the one he killed. As adjudged by two just men among you or for expiation he should feed poor persons or its equivalent in fasting.
[Noble Quran 5:95]
For kissing during Ihram, the pilgrim has to slaughter a sheep or goat in compensation. Sexual intercourse invalidates Hajj but the pilgrim is advised to complete Hajj and to offer a Badanah (Camel) and perform Hajj the following year. If a Badanah is not available, he has to fast for ten days and perform Hajj next year. It was reported in Muwatta’ Imam Malik that ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Abu Hurairah were asked about a man who had sexual intercourse with his wife while he was performing Hajj? They said: “He has to complete his Hajj as well as having to perform Hajj the next year and offer a sacrifice in compensation. As for marriage, proposing for marriage and other sins such as backbiting and slandering, the atonement is repentance and asking Allah’s forgiveness.